Doughnut Economics

Like so many others who suffered the dispiriting experience of studying economics at  A Level (or even worse, at university), I had to plough through reams of economic diagrams in the standard textbooks like Samuelson’s dreary tome, writes Sean Thompson. The central image in mainstream economics is the circular flow diagram. It depicts a closed flow of income cycling between households, businesses, banks, government and trade, operating in a social and ecological vacuum. There is, according to received neo-classical wisdom, no reason for that closed system not to go on and on in endless equilibrium.

 

According to Kate Raworth, in her book Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think like a 21st Century Economist, there’s only one problem with the circular flow diagram: it’s wrong. Energy, materials, the natural world, human society, power, the wealth we hold in common, all are missing from the model. The unpaid work of carers – principally women – is ignored, though no economy could function without them. Like rational economic man, this representation of economic activity bears little relationship to reality.

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Why Ecosocialism: For a Red-Green Future

The capitalist system, driven at its core by the maximization of profit, regardless of social and ecological costs, is incompatible with a just and sustainable future, writes Michael Löwy. Ecosocialism offers a radical alternative that puts social and ecological well-being first. Attuned to the links between the exploitation of labor and the exploitation of the environment, ecosocialism stands against both reformist “market ecology” and “productivist socialism.”

By embracing a new model of robustly democratic planning, society can take control of the means of production and its own destiny. Shorter work hours and a focus on authentic needs over consumerism can facilitate the elevation of “being” over “having,” and the achievement of a deeper sense of freedom for all. To realize this vision, however, environmentalists and socialists will need to recognize their common struggle and how that connects with the broader “movement of movements” seeking a Great Transition.

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Why studying climate change made me quit my PhD

Why the knowledge that I gained while researching climate change at PhD level led me to renounce my career prospects, and how I now feel compelled to dedicate my time, writes Mathieu Munsch

The lack of consideration that decision-makers have for scientific evidence is a frustrating commonplace among those of us – scientists and influencers of all sorts – who spend our lives working to take on those ecologically-illiterate systems.

And yet, rare are those of us on a level of alert really commensurate with the scale and speed of the crash we are living through. Researching climate change has made me re-evaluate why I set out to study for a PhD and whether continuing was my best course of action.

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Climate change will kill my generation, unless we step up now

Ireland has the necessary means to invest in cleaner energy and should be flying way beyond our self-set climate accord measures, yet we continually fail them, writes Owen Hanley.

On November 17 events all over the world took place at the bidding of Extinction Rebellion, a growing call for direct action against those individuals, organisations, and states who continue to be complicit in the destruction of our planet. In my little corner of the planet, on the edge of the Atlantic, nearly two hundred people gathered on the coast of Galway city, Ireland. We were asked to wear black to mourn the unpredicted loss of 60% of global wildlife since the 70’s as a direct consequence of human activity. And children donned wildlife masks in protest at local plans to build a new hospice in local woods that serve as a biodiversity sanctuary.

The vast majority of us are well aware of climate change, the science behind it and its impact. And yet there seems to be a massive cultural apathy to system change.

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Victory in Minnesota: Valve Turners Acquitted of All Charges

The climate movement secured a major victory on October 9 2018 after a judge dismissed all charges against the Valve Turner activists who shut down a tar sands pipeline in northern Minnesota nearly two years previously.

The activists — who were represented by Lauren Regan of the Civil Liberties Defense Center, local counsel Tim Phillips, and Kelsey Skaggs of Climate Defense Project — were prepared to present a climate necessity defense featuring expert testimony on the dangers of climate change and the effectiveness of civil disobedience. After the prosecution closed its case on the second day of trial, however, the judge agreed with the defense that there was insufficient evidence that the activists — Emily Johnston, Annette Klapstein, and Benjamin Joldersma — had damaged or helped to damage the pipeline, and tossed out all remaining charges.

“This victory is an important rebuke to government efforts to punish activists while letting harmful industries off the hook. At the same time, we need to keep fighting to make sure that activists’ voices and rights are respected in the courtroom, particularly for those who are less privileged,” said Kelsey Skaggs.

On October 11, 2016, after months of studying how to undertake their action safely, five climate activists from Washington and Oregon had shut down key pipelines used to transport tar sands oil from Alberta to the United States.

As The Nation noted in an article on the action, “manually closing the emergency shut-off valves on tar sands pipelines in Washington, Montana, North Dakota, and Minnesota … surely stands among the boldest acts of non-violent civil disobedience, on climate or any other issue, in memory.”

The activists stopped the pipelines from pumping as much as 15 per cent of daily oil demand in the U.S., which calculates as roughly three million barrels of oil.

“Three of the valve-turners have been tried and convicted of felony charges — Ken Ward in Washington, Leonard Higgins in Montana, and Michael Foster in North Dakota — and one of them, Foster, has served time in prison,” according to The Nation.

Foster was sentenced to one year, but in the end served six months in a state prison before being released on parole.

The trial for the two remaining valve-turners — Annette Klapstein and Emily Johnston — along with support-team member Ben Joldersma began on October 8.

Implications of ‘necessity defence’

This trial has historic significance because while the previous three defendants were denied the “necessity defence,” the Minnesota  court allowed Klapstein, Johnston, and Joldersma to argue that their actions were necessary and legally justified given the harm of climate change.

The necessity defence acknowledges that while technically a crime was committed, it was done to prevent a greater harm.

Rather than proceeding to trial and having witnesses called who could speak to climate crimes, the judge acquitted the three defendants.

But the initial acceptance of the necessity defence could have implications for future anti-pipeline actions in both the U.S. and Canada.

In May 2018, climate activist Tom Sandborn called on B.C. Supreme Court Judge Kenneth Affleck to accept the “defence of necessity” argument after Sandborn was arrested and charged for blocking a gate at the Trans Mountain pipeline terminal in Burnaby.

But Affleck said the “excuse of necessity has no air of reality in these proceedings,” that its use must be “strictly controlled” and that a defendant must show there was “no other viable option” other than the action and that there must be an “imminent risk of an immediate peril.”

And despite the lack of free, prior and informed consent — highlighted in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples — for the pipeline, and a DARA International study linking 400,000 deaths worldwide each year to climate change, the judge ruled, “The work is lawful and to call it a crime is just a slogan, not an argument.”

Valve-turning in Canada

There have been pipeline valve-turning actions in Canada too.

In December 2015, three men turned off a valve for the Enbridge Line 9 pipeline near St-Justine-de-Newton where it crosses the Ontario-Quebec border. They were charged with mischief, trespassing (breaking and entering), and obstruction.

Then just two weeks later, three women turned a manual hand wheel at a station in Sarnia and interrupted the flow of the pipeline for two hours.

In the latter case, Vanessa Gray, Sarah Scanlon and Stone Stewart were charged with mischief endangering lives, a charge that carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment, and mischief over $5,000.

In January 2017, after a long court battle, the charges were withdrawn after Gray, Scanlon and Stewart agreed to an 18-month court order to stay away from Enbridge property.

The now-defeated 1.1 million barrel-per-day Energy East pipeline would have been 4,500 kilometres in length with a shut-off valve located every 30 kilometres along the route. That would have been about 150 shut-off valves susceptible to this type of action.

The same would generally still hold true for the 300,000 barrel-per-day Line 9 pipeline that runs about 831 kilometres from Sarnia to Montreal and the Trudeau government’s Trans Mountain pipeline that runs about 1,150 kilometres in length.

“Allowing [the necessity] defence will embolden other activists to commit crimes to further their causes,” stated the Minnesota Chamber of Commerce about the court hearings for Klapstein, Johnston, and Joldersma.

Reflecting on the action, valve-turner Klapstein said: “What better thing to do with your retirement than attempt to salvage a habitable world for your children and grandchildren — I can’t think of anything better.”

Although the defendants were disappointed that they were unable to present their case to a jury, the acquittal is a significant step forward for activists who have increasingly turned to the court system to press their demands for action on climate change. In three cases involving Valve Turners in other states who coordinated their actions with the Minnesota activists, defendants were convicted after being denied the opportunity to present a necessity defense. In Minnesota, today’s courtroom victory follows a lengthy effort to defend the activists’ right to argue climate necessity, a battle which went all the way to the state supreme court.

Testifying

Among the experts who had been slated to testify in the case were former NASA scientist James Hansen, 350.org co-founder Bill McKibben, Harvard Law professor Lawrence Lessig, and experts on political science, the history of social movements, pipeline safety, and other topics.

McKibbenn, speaking to Climate Cast after the verdict said:

In a surprising move, the judge acquitted the protesters due to insufficient evidence they’d damaged the pipeline.

McKibben said it seems “odd” the case ended due to a lack of evidence. “It seems like they might have been able to figure that out a long time ago,” he said.

Nonetheless, McKibben believes actions like the valve turners’ are crucial for the public in addressing climate change.

He joined Climate Cast for an interview on Tuesday and reflected on the state of climate activism:

Why activism is necessary for action on climate change

Scientists have been offering this warning for 30 years and what’s happened. We’ve reached the point where the United States, historically the biggest emitter of carbon, has withdrawn from the Paris climate accords — the only international effort to get anything done. The 30-year campaign by the fossil fuel industry to misinform people has been pretty successful.Given all that, protest has been one of the few things that’s actually managed to get anything done. Where we’ve made progress, it’s because people have taken to the streets … it’s because people have done all the things that they shouldn’t have to do. In a rational world, it wouldn’t take people going to jail to get government to pay attention to a clear consensus warning from scientists that were facing the deepest problem we’ve ever faced. But in our world, a world poisoned by the power of the fossil fuel industry, apparently that’s exactly what it takes.

I think that civil disobedience is something that is part of the activist toolkit. Only a part. And it’s not a tool you want to use all the time. Like any tool it gets dull if you use a very much. But there are moments when you have to underline the moral seriousness, the urgency of a problem.

Information from #Shut it DownClimate Defence Project, mprnews and rabble.ca

“What lasted for 3000 years has been destroyed in 30”: the struggle for food sovereignty in Tunisia

This article by Max Ajl was published by Verso on October 16, the International Day of Action for Peoples’ Food Sovereignty, organised by La Via Campesina. In this article,  he reports from Tunisia on the struggles for food sovereignty there, and on what it means for the Global South.

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Latin America’s environmental challenge

Peru’s indigenous Andean and Amazonian women are driving an economy based on distribution and ancestral knowledge about ecology, the environment and culture, which enables them to live in harmony with nature, writes Carmen Grau. Now they are working for visibility and for the recognition of their contribution to the global struggle against climate change.

For the 45 million indigenous people of Latin America, their link with the environment goes beyond its potential use as a resource to a spiritual and cultural connection. Seeing a river dying because of drought or pollution is like losing a family member.

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Book Review: Ian Angus on Climate Change, Anthropocene and the Intersections of Science and Socialism

Book review of A REDDER SHADE OF GREEN. Intersections of Science and Socialism. Ian Angus, Monthly Review Press, New York, 2017 by Barry Sheppard.

This book follows the author’s Facing the Anthropocene, also published by Monthly Review Press, in 2016.

The Anthropocene refers to a new geological period, where the activities of human beings are having major effects on planet’s geology and biology, including for humanity. Angus, and increasingly geologists, are focusing on the period beginning around 1950, when humanity’s impact, which had been developing gradually, underwent a “great acceleration” – a dialectical transformation of quantity into quality.

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12 reasons Labor Should demand a Green New Deal

Labor shouldn’t just back the Green New Deal, it should help lead the way, write  JEREMY BRECHER AND JOE UEHLEIN.

Workers have gotten a raw deal. Employers and their Republican allies are trying to eliminate workers’ rights both in the workplace and at the ballot box. But even when Democrats controlled the presidency and both houses of Congress, they did little to protect, let alone expand, the rights of working people. Workers need a new deal.

Now, an alliance of social movements and members of Congress are proposing a Green New Deal to create millions of jobs by putting Americans to work making a climate-safe economy. This program meets the needs of—and has the potential to unite—the labor movement, environmentalists, and all those who have been the victims of inequality, discrimination, racism and, now, climate change.

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Nuclear power in Africa

Ann Garrison: In your Medium essay “Kagame’s Nuclear Power Plant Is a Joke,” you say that the cost of a nuclear power plant would be equivalent to Rwanda’s national budget for three years. Why do you think he is proposing anything so preposterous?

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